1959 Egypt Sudan Agreement

My argument is that the strength of agreements made in modern times and Egypt`s threats to use military force are questionable for two reasons. First, the former colonies are now independent nations and should be part of the negotiations for a new agreement. Second, environmental conditions have changed: rainfall increases in intermittent and dry spells. Both the 1929 and 1959 agreements sparked resentment in other Nile countries and called for changes to the pact that were rejected by Egypt. It is unclear whether regional disputes over Nile water could trigger future conflicts or whether the cost of confrontation will prevent this outcome. In 1988, Egyptian Foreign Minister Boutros Boutros-Ghali estimated that the Nile would undoubtedly trigger Egypt`s next war. Historically, Egypt has imposed its control over the Nile, granted by the colonial agreements of 1902, 1929 and 1959, to other nations in the Nile Basin. In 1970, Egypt threatened war because of the construction of the Fincha Dam in Ethiopia, and when Ethiopia tried to obtain financing from the World Bank, Egypt and Sudan invoked Article 3 of the 1902 treaty between Britain and Ethiopia. In 2004, Tanzania planned to build the pipeline to Lake Victoria, which would have benefited some 400,000 of its northwestern citizens. Egypt threatened to bomb the construction site, saying it needed the water to flow north into the Aswan Dam. The 1929 agreement prevented Tanzania from blocking the waters of the Nile without British permission. The Nile has a great influence on the intergovernmental policy of the region.

Prior to the 2010 Entebbe Agreement, two major agreements regulated the allocation of Nile waters. These agreements gave Egypt and Sudan absolute rights over the river, leading to serious regional tensions. In 1929, the Nile Water Agreement was signed between Egypt and Britain, granting Egypt the right to inspect all upstream Nile water projects that have the potential to affect its flow. The agreement has been streamlined on the grounds that Egypt is more dependent on the Nile than other countries in the basin, which benefit from heavy rains, access to Nile sources and other supply alternatives. The British decision was also motivated by Egypt`s strategic importance to the Empire; Egypt controlled the Suez Canal and thus British access to India. Decades later, in 1959, Egypt and Sudan signed the Nile Water Agreement. Egypt received three-quarters of the total volume of water (55.5 billion cubic meters), the capacity to build the Aswan Dam, while Sudan received a quarter of the volume (18.5 billion cubic meters). Other countries in the basin have strongly criticized the legitimacy of the 1929 and 1959 Nile water agreements; Since they were not independent at that time, they claimed that they were prevented from fighting for water.

In fact, this agreement gave Egypt full control of the Nile during the dry season when water is most needed for agricultural irrigation….

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